Like all other countries of the world, Nepal has also its pre-historic period, shrouded in obscurity. Its records of early times are as legendary as those of Homer and India. In the absence of facts and figures and other authentic records which help one to say something definitely about a particular historical event, one has to depend, whether one likes it or not, on myths and legends. Nepal has its own myths and legends to tell us of its origin.



Regarding the origin of Nepal which, in the pre-historic period, was taken to mean only the valley of Kathmandu, Swayambhu Puran and Nepal Mahatmya have it to say that to begin with, Nepal was a lake with no outlet of water whatsoever. The valley of Kathmandu remained under water till Manjushree, a Bodhisatwa (potential Buddha) who came from China on pilgrimage sometime in Tretayuga to pay unreserved homage to Swayambhu which appeared on the lotus that grew out of the seed thrown in the lake by Bipasvi Buddha who came to Nepal sometime in the golden age, cut a rock through which the water of the lake flowed out, making the valley habitable.


The Gorge of Chovar cut by Manjushree | history of nepal
The Gorge of Chovar cut by Manjushree | History of nepal and Kathmandu Valley


The Kathmandu Valley‘s history is accompanied by the legend began. It is said that in ancient times the Kathmandu Valley was a big lake, Manjusri Shi Li Bodhisattva from the water Valley drain away, so make the Valley suitable for human habitation by cutting the George of Chovar with her Sword of Wisdom. Geology the study also proved that in the valley there once was a great lake, then the lake water is drained away.


There is historical proof, to establish in the valley of the first Kingdom is more than three thousand years ago. Ancient Nepal having thus come into existence was ruled over by the rulers of different tribes and clans which immigrated into the valley from time to time. Nepalese History is based upon evidences and references from the stones, sheet metal or the inscription, the more it comes from some family of recognizable genealogy, this family tree is called a watt Shalom Valley (Vamshavali), which also recorded historical events.


History of Nepal is based on the rule of the Kathmandu Valley dynasty to divide, so far, have not found a divided history the better method. In Nepal’s history, including now there ruled by four dynasties. Kirat dynasty of Nepal, or Kathmandu Valley in the history of the first dynasties, the base Kirat dynasty built in BC, eight hundred years or so. Some historians say that even the Kirat people nor the Kathmandu Valley’s Indigenous people, they are also alien into the sleeping person. Kirat dynasty’s first king is the only bar (Yalambar), now spread with a few on his legend. It is said that he is a great Archer and Warrior, worked in Northern India participating in the Ma-ha Bharat (Mahabharat) battle. The Valley’s second largest city of Ibadan(Patan) derived from the local name of the Yala(Yala)is from the famous King ya Salam bar(Yalambar).



Kirat special dynasty the total of thirty-two kings ruled the valley for nine hundred years or so, in the VII Kirat King during the reign of the Buddha to Kathmandu. The visits of Gautam Buddha and of Ashoka also contributed to the social and religious development of Nepal. The Chaitya built by Ashoka contributed, to the art and architecture and sculpture of Nepal.


It is said that Gautam Buddha visited Nepal proper during the regime of Jitedasta, the seventh ruler in the Kiranti Dynasty. Ashoka is said to have visited Nepal in about 250 B.C. during the regime of Sthunko, the fourteenth ruler of the Kiranti Dynasty. To commemorate his visit he got four “stupas” erected in four quarters of Lalitpattan. They exist even to this day. Ashoka’s visit to Kathmandu is testified even by the fact that he gave away his daughter Charumati (who accompanied him in his pilgrimage to Nepal) in marriage to Devapal, a Kshetriya prince.



Some three hundred years from the time of Mahabharat to the reign of Ashoka. The sixth century B.C. is one of the most important periods in the history of the world. The Rajputs belonging to the Soma dynasty in order to shelter themselves from the invasions and the growing influence of the Mughal Empire came to the western part of Nepal and established their own principality there. Kiranti kings were ruling over the Valley, but Gasti, the last Kiranti king, being very weak, had to suffer defeat at the hands of Nimistakar Barma (Nimish I) who came from Soma dynasty.


Bhaskar Varma was the last ruler of the Soma dynasty. He came out to be a great conqueror. He conquered modern Orissa and many other territories. He donated a lot of money and jewels to Pashupati Nath. As he had no sons and daughters to succeed him, he adopted Bhoomi Varma, a Lichchhavi Kshetri, of the Solar Dynasty. So after Bhakar Varma began the reign of the Lichchhavi Dynasty.



During Amshuvarma rule, he was not only a man of valour but also a shrewd politician, a diplomat and a statesman. With a view not to burden the people with taxation he did away with all sorts of taxes. He was also a man of letters. Under his patronage Nepalese art and architecture and literature developed. He was tolerant to other religions, though himself a Shaivite. He had equal regard for Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Buddhism.


The independence of Nepal was in danger, but Amshuvarma by his clever stroke of diplomacy maintained the balance of power and kept his suzerainty intact. His foreign policy: Harsha Vardhan in India and Tsrong Tsong Gyampo in Tibet were the contemporaries of Amshuvarma. Both Harsha and Gyampo were engaged in expanding.


This matrimonial alliance besides strengthening the position of Nepal enhanced her prestige as well. Tsrong Tsong Gyampo also married the Chinese princess Wenchang. The Tibetans adored the Nepalese princess as ‘Harita Tara’ and the Chinese princess as ‘Shweta Tara’


He contracted matrimonial alliance with Tibet by giving his daughter Bhrikuti in marriage to Tsrong Tsong Gyampo. Bhrikuti exercised her good offices in spreading Buddhism in Tibet. Because of her efforts, Buddhism took its root in Tibet. Famous Nepali artist Ani brother (Arniko)came to ignore the must column of the Imperial court, the construction of a Beijing white pagoda including a Buddhist monument, Buddhist by Nepal spread to Tibet, is also in this period. The dynasties period, Padmasambhava in Nepal, lived for almost twenty years, and then from here went to Tibet.


Bhrikuti "Green Tara" Thanka Painting
Bhrikuti “Green Tara” Thanka Painting


In Charles Wei period(A. D. 100 years to 1200 years), the unique characteristics of Nepalese art began to appear, many unique Nepal social institutions also began in this dynasty. The world famous Buddhist monk, law and Xuanzang in the investigation Wei period to visit India and Nepal some of the places, the law significantly actually also went to Kathmandu, and then also visit the Royal Palace, which can be from the Buddhist country in mind(“Records of Buddhist Countries”), a book confirmed. The mysterious device in his the Buddhist book is also written to the Kathmandu Valley, but he hadn’t actually been here.



The lizard’vi is another group from Northern India came to the valley of the people to defeat, a new dynasty—Mala (Malla) dynasty established. These Mala people soon to be in the Kathmandu Valley to the culture of assimilation, they lose their original identity, thus becoming the Newari people. Mara from A. D. 1200 to 1768 to rule the Valley.


Malla dynasty, Nepal is one of history’s most prosperous period, art, text, and soul theory in this period has made great achievements, let the Nepalese people are always bored and are proud of the artwork, stupas, temples, sculpture, mostly built in this dynasty. Malla Dynasty also with it The Legend is known, then, the gods, goddesses and demons wander through the Kathmandu streets, they are often in human form, who through spiritual practice may also have been turned into gods and goddesses. Famous living goddess Kumari (Kumari) traditional start to the Malla dynasty.



According to legend, du La good (Taleju) goddess particularly liked the Malla dynasty’s last king (Jaya Prakash Malla), she often came to the King’s room to play Pasha (Pasha), and also advise him as well. One night Jaya Prakash Malla; king looked at goddess lustfully, infuriated goddess announced that she would never come to him again. She predicted both of his reign and fall of his dynasty were at hand. The king for their own non-standard behavior without remorse, immediately ordered the Mage to find the Shakya clan of the reincarnation of the Virgin, and her as a goddess to worship. This living goddess is called as Kumari in Nepali language means Virgin. Today, the Shah Kings in homage to the Kumari tradition is still there.


Goddess Kumari
Living Goddess Kumari


The famous Malla dynasty due to Guo at the client (Gurkha)King of the lie and perish, Guo at the guest of the king in the year 1768 in the establishment of a new dynasty—Shah (Shah)dynasty. With the advent of Shah dynasty established, Nepal entered the modern era. In the Malla dynasty of late, the British have come to India, and mastered the Indian regime, the British are interested in expanding their territory, a lot of the unrest is occurring in India’s own territory.


Shah dynasty about fifty years has been expanding its territory, the land area of most large the time is almost now three times. Nepal for decades, worked with the British rule in India occurred several wars, although Nepal lost a lot of land, but most importantly, Nepal has never lost its sovereignty. In fact, the UK is the first to admit that Nepal is a sovereign country, so, in the history of Nepal never became any country of the colony.


During Shah dynasty rule Kathmandu Valley cultural assimilation, they absorb the Newari people of the religious ceremonies and language, some kings even use Newari language to write poetry, write prose. But in building toward the less than a hundred years when the Shah King will be their regimes lost to Rana (Rana) Prime Minister of the people. Rana is a family name, they are almost a century to master the country’s political power, the Rana people with the King a marriage relationship. Although Shah the king is not deposed, but has no power, under house arrest in the Palace inside. The Rana regime period, the Kathmandu Valley, the traditional culture of contrast to the severely damaged.



Until 1950’s, the Rana regime, only to perish, contemporary history of Nepal from the beginning. Now Shah, the tenth King to rule the country, the state has also implemented multi-party parliamentary system.In 1791, Britain and Nepal signed a rapacious “trade Treaty”. In 1815 Britain and Nepal signed a plug Gerry treaties”, forced Nepal to the South of large tracts of land cut to India, and the requirements of Nepal, governance and trade aspects of the accepted British supervision.


After the Second World War, the British in the Nepal’s privileged status also with the Nepalese people of unremitting struggle and loss. In 1951, the Nepali Congress party to the United Nations Wang forces, forcing the Rana Prime Minister to hand over the regime, the end of the family 105 years of hereditary rule.



Narayanhiti Royal Palace
Narayanhiti Royal Palace



June 1, 2001 , in Kathmandu, Narayanhiti Palace occurrence of shootings, “Royal Massacre“the Crown Prince Dipendra pulled because of love affair and even kill King Birendra, Queen Aiswarya , The Little Prince Nirajan, The Princess of Shruti, etc., more than 10 Royal family members. Dipendra  pulls himself suicide was mortally wounded, after died. People find it hard to believe however there exist conspiracy theory.


Birendra the King’s brother Gyanendra 4th June at the Hanuman Dhoka Palace the Old Palace rowned, inherits the throne. He served as the head of the Nepalese monarchy—Shah Dynasty. The 240 years of monarchy was abolished on 28 May 2008 by the 1st Constituent Assembly and was declared  Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.


Devastating earthquake of 7.8 magnitude hit Nepal in April 2015 followed by several powerful aftershocks causing loss of life, infrastructure and property in an unimaginable scale. Two large aftershocks, with magnitudes 6.6 and 6.7, shook the region within one day of the main quake, and several dozen smaller aftershocks occurred in the region during the succeeding days. On May 12 a magnitude-7.3 aftershock struck some 76 km (47 miles) east-northeast of Kathmandu, killing more than 100 people and injuring nearly 1,900.


The lower house of Nepal’s Parliament on Saturday (June 10, 2020) approved a new map of the country by 258 out of 275 members of Parliament, exceeding the required two-thirds majority. 


The government has based the new map on the Sugauli Treaty signed between Nepal and British India in 1816, which states that all lands east of the Kali River belong to Nepal. While Nepal has argued that Limpiyadhura is the origin of the river, India has claimed Kalapani as the source. More about historical and geographical effect of Sugouli Treaty is here


Nepal National Embdem
New Nepal National Embdem with New map of Nepal


Nepal National Embdem feature map of Nepal in the core and  flag of Nepal on top of Sagarmatha- Mount Everest, green hills symbolising the hilly regions of Nepal and yellow colour symbolising the fertile Terai region, male and female hands joining to symbolise gender equality, and a garland of Rhododendron (the national flower).


At the base of the design a red scroll carries the national motto in Sanskrit: जननी जन्मभूमिश्च स्वर्गादपी गरीयसी (jananī janmabhūmiśca svargādapi garīyasī), which translates as “Mother and Motherland are greater than heaven.